What Is DEXs? Decentralized Exchanges Explained

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Are you wondering, “What is DEXs?” In just a few minutes, we’ll demystify decentralized exchanges, shedding light on how they operate and why they’re gaining prominence in the world of cryptocurrencies.

What Is DEXs?

DEXs, or Decentralized Exchanges, are digital platforms that enable the peer-to-peer trading of cryptocurrencies and digital assets directly between users without the need for traditional intermediaries such as centralized exchanges or brokers. Decentralized Exchanges operate on blockchain technology and employ smart contracts to facilitate secure and transparent transactions. 

Unlike centralized exchanges, Decentralized Exchanges grant users greater control over their funds and typically prioritize privacy and security. They play a pivotal role in the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem, providing a platform for users to trade, provide liquidity, and engage in various financial activities in a trustless and permissionless manner.

What Is DEXs?

Centralized vs Decentralised Crypto Exchanges (CEX vs DEX)

What are the Three Types of DEX?

Automated Market Makers (AMM)

AMMs utilize smart contract technology to facilitate trades and monitor the prices of digital assets. Instead of relying on traditional buyer-seller matching, AMMs leverage community-backed liquidity pools to execute buy and sell orders.

Liquidity pools consist of two different tokens, and transactions within these pools alter the token ratios, subsequently affecting the pool’s token prices. For example, if a pool initially has 100 units of token A and 200 units of token B, the ratio is 1:2. When someone buys 50 units of token B for 25 units of token A, the pool’s ratio shifts, resulting in 125 units of token A and 150 units of token B, with a new ratio of 1:1.2.

The decentralized nature of AMMs leads to varying asset prices across different exchanges. Arbitrageurs exploit these differences by buying assets from exchanges with lower prices and selling them into pools with higher prices, thereby averaging the overall price.

Order Books (Off-chain and On-chain)

Order books, akin to those on centralized exchanges, empower traders to place buy and sell orders for specific digital assets at desired prices. On-chain order books allow for trading without the need for custody of tokens, and traders often use leverage to enhance profit potential, albeit with an increased risk of losses.

DEX Aggregators

DEX aggregators function as decentralized exchange search engines, consolidating information from various DEXs. They eliminate the manual effort of searching for the best token prices by employing different protocols to aggregate liquidity from multiple exchanges. This approach minimizes slippage on large orders, reduces trading fees, and ensures optimal token prices for users.

 Types of DEX

Key Benefits of Using DEXs

Don’t overlook these important advantages of using Decentralized Exchanges:

  • Security: Decentralized Exchanges are highly secure, reducing the risk of hacks and centralized control.
  • Privacy: Users can trade with minimal personal information, enhancing privacy.
  • Censorship Resistance: DEXs are less susceptible to censorship, ensuring accessibility worldwide.
  • Asset Variety: DEXs support a wide range of cryptocurrencies and tokens.
  • No Middlemen: Transactions occur directly between users, reducing fees and risks.
  • Accessibility: Decentralized Exchanges are open 24/7 to anyone with an internet connection and a compatible wallet.
  • Transparency: Operations on public blockchains provide transparency and trust.
  • Ownership Control: Users maintain control of their funds and private keys.
  • Liquidity: Liquidity pools ensure trading pairs remain liquid.
  • Innovation and Competition: Open-source nature fosters continuous improvement and competition.
  • Global Reach: Access global markets without traditional banking services.
  • Non-Custodial: Decentralized Exchanges do not hold users’ funds, reducing the risk of asset loss.
Key benefits of using DEXs

What Are The Risks of Using DEX?

The primary key risks of using DEXs include:

  • Smart Contract Vulnerabilities: Decentralized Exchanges rely on smart contracts that may contain vulnerabilities or coding errors, potentially leading to financial losses.
  • Limited Regulatory Protections: DEXs often operate in a regulatory gray area, offering users fewer legal safeguards compared to centralized exchanges.
  • Price Volatility: Cryptocurrency prices can be highly volatile, and Decentralized Exchanges may lack the same level of price stability and liquidity found on centralized platforms.
  • Irreversible Transactions: Transactions on DEXs are typically irreversible, meaning that errors or unauthorized actions can result in permanent loss of funds.
  • Scams and Frauds: The decentralized nature of Decentralized Exchanges can attract fraudulent projects and scams, posing risks to unsuspecting users.
  • User Responsibility: Users are responsible for managing their private keys and wallet security, making them vulnerable to losses due to mistakes or phishing attacks.
  • Lack of Customer Support: DEXs often lack traditional customer support channels, leaving users with limited recourse in case of issues or disputes.
  • Limited Pairings: While Decentralized Exchanges offer a variety of cryptocurrencies, they may have fewer trading pairs compared to centralized exchanges.

Awareness of these primary risks is crucial for individuals considering the use of DEXs, as it enables them to take appropriate precautions and make informed decisions when engaging in decentralized trading.

How Does DEXs Work?

Unlike Coinbase and other centralized exchanges, DEXs (decentralized exchanges) only let you trade one type of cryptocurrency for another. Centralized exchanges (CEXs) allow you to swap between regular money and cryptocurrencies or trade different cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin for Ethereum. They also offer fancier options like borrowing money for trades or setting specific buying and selling prices. All this happens within the exchange itself using a system like what stock markets use.

But DEXs work more simply. They are a bunch of smart contracts that use math to set cryptocurrency prices and use something called “liquidity pools” to make trades happen.

While transactions on a centralized exchange are recorded on that exchange’s internal database, DEX transactions are settled directly on the blockchain.

DEXs are usually built with open-source code, which means anyone can see how they work. That also means that developers can adapt existing code to create new competing projects — which is how Uniswap’s code has been adapted by an entire host of DEXs with “swap” in their names like Sushiswap and Pancakeswap. 

Popular Decentralized Exchanges

Here is a list of some of the top decentralized exchanges to consider trying in 2023:

Popular Decentralized Exchanges


Uniswap is the largest decentralized exchange on Ethereum, with over $4 billion in total value locked (TVL). It offers high liquidity and supports multiple blockchains, including BNB Smart Chain, Arbitrum, Optimism, Polygon, and Celo. Users can easily become liquidity providers and earn a share of the 0.3% trade fee. Uniswap has its governance token, UNI, allowing token holders to participate in protocol decisions. All you need to get started is a non-custodial wallet like MetaMask or Coinbase Wallet.

Key Uniswap Highlights:

  • TVL: $4.09 billion
  • Chains Supported: 6
  • Governance Token: UNI


PancakeSwap, the top DEX for BNB Smart Chain, enables easy BEP-20 token swaps via Trust Wallet and supports Ethereum and Aptos. Users can earn rewards through liquidity provision, farming, staking, or trying their luck in the lottery. CAKE, PancakeSwap’s token, incentivizes liquidity providers. To get started, connect your non-custodial wallet.

Key PancakeSwap Highlights:

  • TVL: $2.13 billion
  • Chains Supported: 3
  • Governance Token: CAKE


Curve is a popular DEX for secure trading of stablecoins and pegged cryptocurrencies, including wBTC, using decentralized technology. Originally built for Ethereum, it now supports 11 blockchains, including Avalanche and Fantom. Users can provide liquidity to earn rewards, and there’s a native token, CRV, which can be earned or staked on platforms like Convex Finance. To get started, connect your non-custodial wallet.

Key Curve Highlights:

  • TVL: $4.22 billion
  • Supported Chains: 11
  • Governance Token: CRV


dYdX is a decentralized exchange specializing in perpetual trading options for over 35 cryptocurrencies with up to 20X leverage. All trades are executed using smart contracts. You can buy or earn DYDX tokens and stake them for a yield. While it started as a hybrid decentralized exchange, dYdX is progressively becoming fully decentralized, with the remaining centralized components set for removal in dYdX V4.

Key dYdX Highlights:

  • TVL: $352 million
  • Supported Chains: 1
  • Governance Token: DYDX


Balancer is a unique decentralized exchange that functions like an index fund through its Balancer pools.

Unlike other DEXs, Balancer pools can contain up to eight different cryptocurrencies, offering diversification similar to index funds. This reduces the risk of impermanent loss when providing liquidity, as you can adjust ratios for volatile assets.

Key Balancer Highlights:

  • TVL: $1.1 billion
  • Supported Chains: 4
  • Governance Token: BAL

What Fees are Involved?

Most DEXs charge fees for every transaction, regardless of whether a user is buying or selling. DEXs that use community-funded liquidity pools often reward liquidity providers with a portion of the fee revenue. DEXs tend to have lower transaction fees than their centralized counterparts, although the fees vary depending on the blockchain. In general, proof-of-stake blockchains charge lower fees than proof-of-work blockchains.

Future Trends in DEX Development

Future trends in decentralized exchange (DEX) development are poised to shape the landscape of decentralized finance (DeFi) in the coming years. Here are some key trends to watch:

  • Cross-Chain Integration: DEXs are increasingly focusing on interoperability, allowing users to trade assets across different blockchain networks seamlessly. This trend will reduce fragmentation in the DeFi space and provide users with more options for trading.
  • Layer 2 Solutions: To address scalability and high gas fees, DEXs are adopting layer 2 scaling solutions. These solutions aim to improve transaction throughput while reducing costs, making DeFi more accessible to users.
  • Advanced Order Types: DEXs will introduce more sophisticated order types, catering to professional traders. This includes limit orders, stop-loss orders, and more, providing users with greater flexibility and risk management options.
  • Derivatives and Options: DEXs will expand beyond spot trading to offer derivatives and options markets. This development will open up new trading strategies and risk management tools within the DeFi ecosystem.
  • NFT Integration: Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) will find applications within DEXs, enabling the tokenization and trading of unique assets, including digital collectibles and real-world assets.


Decentralized exchanges (DEXs) offer a transformative way to trade cryptocurrencies without relying on traditional intermediaries. Their transparency, security, and user control make them a compelling choice for crypto enthusiasts. As you’ve learned in just a few minutes, DEXs represent an exciting evolution in the world of digital assets, providing greater financial autonomy and accessibility to users worldwide.

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Chi Do
Chi Do
Chi Do is a content writer at CoinMinutes, responsible for creating most of the content on the website, including news related to Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Blockchain, Decentralized Finance (DeFi), and more. With a keen interest in cryptocurrencies since the 2020s, Chi has acquired extensive experience and knowledge in this field. Chi holds a Bachelor's degree in communication from Academy of Journalism and Communication in Vietnam.

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